May 19, 2016 - 8:50 AM EDT
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The following discussion and analysis provides information which management believes is relevant to an assessment and understanding of our consolidated financial condition and results of operations. This discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements included herewith and notes to the consolidated financial statements thereto and the risk factors contained herein.


The SEC encourages companies to disclose forward-looking information so that investors can better understand a company's future prospects and make informed investment decisions. This report contains "forward-looking statements" made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements relate to our outlook or expectations for earnings, revenues, expenses, asset quality or other future financial or business performance, strategies or expectations, or the impact of legal, regulatory or supervisory matters on our business, results of operations or financial condition. Specifically, forward-looking statements may include statements preceded by, followed by or that include the words "estimate," "plan," "project," "forecast," "intend," "expect," "anticipate," "believe," "seek," "target," "may," "could," "should," "will," or similar expressions. Any statements that refer to expectations, projections or other characterizations of future events or circumstances, including any underlying assumptions, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements contained herein reflect management's judgment based on currently available information and involve a number of risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those in the forward-looking statements. Future performance cannot be ensured. Although we believe that our expectations regarding future events are based on reasonable assumptions, any or all forward-looking statements in this report may turn out to be incorrect. They may be based on inaccurate assumptions or may not account for known or unknown risks and uncertainties. Consequently, no forward-looking statement is guaranteed, and actual future results may vary materially from the results expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements. The cautionary statements in this report expressly qualify all of our forward-looking statements. In addition, we are not obligated, and do not intend, to update any of our forward-looking statements at any time unless an update is required by applicable securities laws. Factors that could cause actual results to differ from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, those discussed in Part I, Item 1A, Risk Factors of our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2015. Specifically, we may experience significant fluctuations in future operating results due to the uncertain results of pending patent litigation as well as a number of economic conditions, including, but not limited to, competition, the actions of third parties infringing our patents, commodity market risks, financial market risks, counter-party risks, risks associated with changes to federal policy or regulation or to the laws upon which our intellectual property rights are based, the timely completion of corn oil extraction projects by our licensees, the amount of corn oil recovered by our licensees, and other risk factors detailed in our reports filed with the SEC. Actual results may differ materially from projected results due, without limitation, to unforeseen developments.

In light of these assumptions, risks and uncertainties, the results and events discussed in the forward-looking statements contained in this report or in any document incorporated by reference might not occur. Investors are cautioned not to place undue reliance on the forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date of this report or the date of the document incorporated by reference in this report. We are not under any obligation, and we expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or alter any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.


GreenShift develops and commercializes clean technologies that facilitate the more efficient use of natural resources. We primarily do so today in the U.S. ethanol industry, where we innovate and offer technologies that improve the profitability of licensed ethanol producers. We generate revenue by licensing our technologies to ethanol producers, and by providing our licensees with success-driven, value-added services and other solutions based upon our expertise, know-how, technologies, and patent position.


We believe that the first, best and most cost-effective way to achieve positive environmental change of any magnitude is to develop technology-driven economic incentives that motivate large groups of people and companies to make incremental environmental contributions that are collectively very significant - contributions that cumulate to catalyze disruptive environmental gains.

We invented, developed, and commercialized technologies that integrate into the back-end of existing dry mill corn ethanol plants to extract and recover a historically-overlooked natural resource - inedible crude corn oil, a valuable feedstock for use in the production of advanced carbon-neutral liquid fuels and other biomass-derived alternatives to fossil fuel-based products. We estimate that over 80% of the U.S. dry mill ethanol industry is producing corn oil using at least one of the inventions claimed in our issued extraction patents. That adoption rate corresponds to an estimated industry-wide output capable of offsetting more than about 20 million barrels of fossil fuel-derived crude oil per year, while saving trillions of cubic feet per year of natural gas, eliminating tens of millions of metric tons per year of greenhouse gas emissions, and infusing more than an estimated $1 billion per year of increased income into the corn ethanol industry - the foundation of North America's renewable fuel production capability.

Those are globally-meaningful gains, and they are repeatable. To that end, we have developed a portfolio of new patented and patent-pending technologies capable of significantly expanding on our work to date in the ethanol industry. Those technologies involve new uses and products for extracted corn oil as well as other components of various ethanol process streams. We are also actively evaluating diversification opportunities, including applications of our technologies in other industries and potential acquisitions of companies with assets, customers, operations or other resources that are strategic to the commercialization of our technologies in targeted industries.

Diversification is important to mitigate the risk that we may not prevail in our ongoing patent infringement litigation. In October 2014, the District Court in Indiana ruled in favor of the defendants on their motions for summary judgment alleging that our corn oil extraction patents were invalid, including US Pat. Nos. 7,601,858 and 8,168,037. In December 2014, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office allowed three new corn oil extraction patents (U.S. Patent Nos.: 9,108,140, 9,012,668 and 9,212,334). Each patent was examined and considered patentable by a different patent examiner and after each had considered the summary judgment decision. We cannot speak to the significance of the conflicting determinations, however, under applicable standards, a patent is not invalid until and unless a final judgment of invalidity is rendered after all available appeals have been exhausted. We believe in our intellectual property rights and the system of checks and balances designed to protect those rights - both in the patent office and the courts, and we will appeal the summary judgment ruling at the appropriate time. Nevertheless, diversification of our revenue mix is our key goal for 2016.

Plan of Operations

We will continue our work with our licensees to maximize the benefits and minimize the costs of recovering as much corn oil as possible, and we remain focused on winning new business and increasing our licensed penetration. To do so moving forward, we will continue to provide our licensees with exceptional services, the highest-performing systems available, and access to new technologies for further gains in licensee profitability and competitive advantage. We will also continue to expand our patent portfolio. We have many additional patents pending and we remain committed to developing new technologies to further enhance the profitability of our licensees. And we will stay the course in our ongoing infringement litigation with a view towards enhancing and protecting the competitive advantage of our licensees.

Effective as of December 31, 2015, the Company entered into a series of agreements providing for an aggregate of $26,720,059 in debt extinguishment for amounts that had been due, payable and accrued as of December 31, 2015, in exchange for contingent participation payments involving use of the Company's extraction technologies. Notably, part of the extinguishment was due to the elimination of the majority of the Company's previously outstanding convertible debt to YA Global, corresponding to a significantly reduced potential for dilution upon conversion. Further, looking forward, those agreements additionally corresponded to a reduction in the Company's continuing costs of sales (due to a reduction of royalties payable), legal expenses (by amending the Company's agreement with its patent counsel to a straight contingency arrangement), and interest expense (by eliminating debt due to YA Global); which amounts corresponded to about $5.9 million and $3.5 million of the Company's expenses during the years ended December 31, 2014 and December 31, 2015, respectively.


Our financial performance for 2016 and beyond can be expected to be most significantly impacted by the amount of corn oil that our licensees produce, the market price for that corn oil, the extent to which we collect reasonable royalties, and the costs incurred in our ongoing litigation for infringement of our patents. In addition, future results may be improved by the significant interest in our engineering and other services in connection with the design, construction, integration and modification of corn oil extraction systems and other new systems for existing and prospective licensees. We expect that these activities will contribute to revenue during 2016.

We additionally expect to continue to incur substantial costs in connection with our ongoing litigation for infringement of our patented corn oil extraction technologies. While these costs decreased during 2015 and are expected to continue through 2016 in advance of trial. These expenses may delay or otherwise adversely affect our ability to achieve our profitability and debt reduction goals. We hope to eventually eliminate our litigation expense, but we must and will take all necessary steps to bring infringement of our patents to an end.


Our revenues are derived from our technology licensing activities and the provision of related products and services. We issue royalty-bearing licenses to ethanol producers that use our patented and patent-pending technologies. In return, we receive ongoing royalty fees under our license agreements that are based on the market value of the corn oil produced by our licensees. Our license agreements also call for our provision of technical services to our licensees, which we provide to maximize the benefit of our technologies to our clients and, derivatively, us by way of increased royalty income. These services include design, procurement, integration and ongoing support services. In these cases, our royalty payments were equal to the gross profit realized upon sale of corn oil, or the difference between the market price of the corn oil produced and our discounted purchase price in each relevant license.

Our costs of sales primarily include allocable labor, materials and incidental expenses incurred in connection with our provision of services to our licensees.

Selling, general and administrative expenses consist of payroll, office expenses, insurance and professional fees for accounting, legal, consulting and investor relations activities. Payroll, including employee salaries, incentives and benefits, are the largest single category of expenditures in selling, general and administrative expenses. Other income (expense) includes interest earned, interest expenses, amortization expenses, income or expenses relating to the changing value of the conversion benefit embedded into our convertible debentures and other non-operating items. Notably, our agreements with our lenders provide for the accrual of our interest expenses pending conversion or other payment.


We do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements that have or are reasonably likely to have a current or future material effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations or liquidity.


Three Months Ended March 31, 2016 Compared to Three Months Ended March 31, 2015

Revenues for the three months ended March 31, 2016 were approximately $894,000 as compared to about $913,000 generated during the three months ended March 31, 2015. The decrease in revenue during 2016 as compared to 2015 was due to a decrease in event-driven engineering services revenue, the amount of corn oil produced and royalties paid by our licensees, and commodity price fluctuation. Revenue in future periods will remain subject to variance in connection with a number of factors, including the amount of corn oil that our licensees produce, the market price for that corn oil, the extent to which we collect reasonable royalties, and the degree to which we provide event-driven systems integration services to our licensees involving the design, construction, integration and modification of licensed technologies.

Costs of sales for the three months ended March 31, 2016 decreased to approximately $72,000 from about $278,000 during 2015. We generated approximately $823,000 in gross profit for the three months ended March 31, 2016 as compared to $635,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2015. The decrease in cost of sales is related mainly to the new TAA agreement with CWT. We expect to achieve increased economies of scale with respect to our costs of sales and gross profit as all of our existing and new licensees commence and achieve full production and as we execute new licenses for our corn oil extraction and other technologies. Operating expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015 were about $732,000 and $1.5 million, respectively. Operating expenses during 2016 included approximately $204,000 in professional fees, of which approximately $75,000 was accrued and not paid during the three months. By contrast, operating expenses during 2015 included approximately $600,000 in professional fees, of which approximately $200,000 was accrued and not paid during the three months, as well as about $321,000 in research and development costs. Our legal costs during 2015 were incurred primarily in connection with our ongoing litigation for patent infringement. We produced about $91,000 in operating income during 2016 as compared to about $868,000 in operating loss in 2015.


Other expense, net of other income, for the three months ended March 31, 2016 was approximately $1.5 million, while other expense, net, for the three months ended March 31, 2015 was approximately $600,000. We realized a debt extinguishment gain of about $2.6 million in 2016 that was offset by about $107,000 in interest expense. These amounts compared to a debt extinguishment gain of about $15,000 that was offset by about $571,000 in interest expense during 2015.

Net loss for the three months ended March 31, 2016 and 2015, was about $1.4 million and about $1.5 million, respectively.


We accounted for our convertible debt in accordance with ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging as the conversion feature embedded in the convertible debentures could result in the note principal and related accrued interest being converted to a variable number of our common shares. The conversion feature on these debentures is variable and based on trailing market prices. It therefore contains an embedded derivative. The fair value of the conversion feature was calculated when the debentures were issued, and we recorded a note discount and derivative liability for the calculated value. We recognize interest expense for accretion of the note discount over the term of the note. The conversion liability is valued at the end of each reporting period and results in a gain or loss for the change in fair value. Due to the volatile nature of our stock, the change in the derivative liability and the resulting gain or loss will usually be material to our results. The principal amount on our convertible debentures was $6.9 million as of March 31, 2016, and the unamortized note discount was $3.9 million. For the three months ended March 31, 2016, a loss for the change in fair value of the derivative of about $3.2 million was recognized for these debentures. The total derivative liability as of March 31, 2016, was $10,342,671.


Our primary source of liquidity during 2016 was cash produced by our operations. During the three months ended March 31, 2016, we produced about $279,000 in cash from our operating activities, used about $607,000 in our investing activities, as well as about $400,000 in our financing activities, primarily to repay debt to YA Global Investments, L.P. assignees. During the three months ended March 31, 2015, we used about $330,000 in net cash in our operating activities and we used about $129,000 in net cash in our financing activities, which was also mostly used to repay debt to YA Global. Our cash balances at March 31, 2016, and December 31, 2015, were about $1.1 million and $1.9 million, respectively. The Company had a working capital deficit of about $12.6 million at March 31, 2016; however, our current liabilities included approximately that amount in obligations convertible into Company common stock, including application of discounts and the associated derivative liabilities.

Our financial position and liquidity moving forward will be based on our ability to generate cash flows from our operations, as well as the level of our outstanding indebtedness and our debt service obligations. Our business is highly impacted by commodity price volatility, primarily in the market for corn oil. While demand for extracted corn oil is strong in the biodiesel and multiple other markets, decreases in the price of corn oil will have a negative impact on the amount of cash we are able to produce from our operating activities. Moreover, to the extent that our existing and potential new licensees are all corn ethanol producers, our business is also subject to commodity price risk in the markets for ethanol, distillers grain, corn and natural gas. These risks are partially mitigated for us by the fact that use of our corn oil extraction technologies will enhance the liquidity and financial position of licensed ethanol producers and provide our licensees with vitally important cash flows during periods of reduced ethanol producer margins. However, our ability to generate cash flow may be adversely affected if, for example, a new licensee were forced by a reduced crush spread to suspend operations prior to installing a corn oil extraction system.



DISCLOSURE: The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors, and do not represent the views of Readers should not consider statements made by the author as formal recommendations and should consult their financial advisor before making any investment decisions. To read our full disclosure, please go to:

Source: News (May 19, 2016 - 8:50 AM EDT)

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